Technical domain
  Lebanon land Rover Union publications


by John Gibran

It has been sometime now I wanted to write a paper about the "fluids" that should fit our vehicules.
Well, here it is :

I want to talk about all kinds of fluids that are in our cars, from the water in the radiator to the lithium based grease on the hood retention clip. Let's start with the simplest :

Lebanon is known for its abundance of water but beware; Lebanon's water is the richest in "calcai" residus and sediments.  So if you can, and if you care about the health of your engine, use only distilled water.
An engine's life is in its temperature. Always check the cooling system.
On the numeric side of the story, around 10.8 liters of water is needed to fill up an empty cooling system in a 4 cylinder engine, and around 12.8 liters for a V8 model.
Oops, I almost forgot about the water in the windscreen washer. Never fill this to the top, but only to 3 cm less. Use a screen washer solvent in the container, this will assist your wipers in removing the mud off our windscreens.
Last but not least, there is water to be added in the battery. the question is, when ?
We live in a rather hot climate area, specially in summer time, so check the electrolyte level of ALL 6 cells of the battery, this should be 3mm over the top of the plates.  So if necessary, top it up with distilled water only and only to reach 3mm above the plates.
John's hint :  Free distilled water can be obtained by catching up water coming out of an air conditioning system. Usually people throw it away.

All Antifreeze are Ethylene-Glycol based. In the "ingredients" part, make sure that it does not contain any Methanol, if it does, then do not use it.
As for the quantity to put , follow the procedure written on the antifreeze container (good tip).
Each brand has different mixture for every single operating temperature range.
In case of doubt, use 50% water and 50% antifreeze. This would give protection for at least under-26°C.
John's hint: Luckily for us, there is not (yet) any antifreeze made locally in Lebanon, so no need to worry about quality. But do worry about the life of it; in case you are buying your product from a dusty place where the liquid sits in stock since the phoenician age, you might wish to consider buying it from a more visited workshop after all.

Check it weekly or every 500Km . The oil level must never go under the L (low) notch on the dipstick (left side of the engine ! Huh)
The Engine should not be running while doing the check up, and the vehicle should be standing on level ground .
Note that there is an H (high) mark indicating that we should not overfill. Serious engine damage can occur if overfilled.
Now which oil to use in Lebanon ? Hmmm First of all, avoid the good great magnificent deals and offers that go like :"with every oil check up, get a free washing...". What I want to say here is, that cheap oil made locally or very near the border at 1500LP / liter,  is to be avoided. Now you can use it if you have to, but then you should change it (along with the oil filter) after 500 Km.
The brands that Land Rover recommends, that can be found in Lebanon are:
    Duckhams Hypergrade or QXR
    Shell Super Motor Oil or Gemini
    Mobil 1 Rallye Formula
    Castrol GTX ot TXT or Syntron X
    Esso Superlube EX2 or Superlube +
As for the famous SAE viscosity it is very easy to understand:
an SAE for 5W/30 is for ambient temperatures between -30°C to +30°C
an SAE for 10W/40 is for ambient temperatures between -20°C to +30°C
an SAE for 15W/40 is for ambient temperatures between -10°C to +40°C
an SAE for 20W/50 is for ambient temperatures between 0°C and +50°C
an SAE for 25W/50 is for ambient temperatures between -15°C and +50°C
I live in Beirut and I go occasionally to Faraya or to the Cedars, so 20W/50 seems to be a winner for me.
Finally, let me end the Engine Oil section with a true joke:  a V8 engine will take 5.1 liters of oil, and a 4 cylinder will take 6 liters.
Note: Extra oil of 0.7 liters is to be added if a new oil filter is fitted.
John's hint: The quantity of oil (in a V8) required to raise the level from the L (low) to the H (high) is 1.4 liters.
P.S: if somebody knows how much is needed in a 4 cylinder engine please email it to me

Physically speaking, any brake fluids having a minimum boiling point of 260°C will do. In other terms DOT 4 white (abyad) will do.
Make sure personally that  the  liquid is colorless, no blueish nor reddish should be accepted even if the "engineers" at the gas stations in Lebanon say otherwise...
John's hint: Never allow brake fluids to reach car paint or cloth. It never hurt my hands though.

Usually if there is no leak there is no need to add oil, but a check up every 2 weeks (depending on the use) is recommended.
For Refill use:
    Castrol GTX 15W/50
    Duckhams Hypergrade 15W/50
    Mobil Super 15W/40
    BP Visco 2000

a check up every 2 weeks (depending on the use) is recommended.
For Refill use:
    Duckhams Hypoid 90
    Esso Gear Oil GX95/90
    Mobil Mobilube HD90
    Shell Spirax 90HP
    Castrol Hypoy 90

This is the same red oil that goes into the carburators (for carburator car versions of course)
it should not be overfilled either. >From the brands found in Lebanon, Land Rover recommends the following:
    Duckhams Q-matic
    Esso ATF type G
    Mobil ATF 210
    Castrol TQF

Well grease goes for the prop shaft, front and rear lubrication nipples, ball joints, hubs etc...
A little bit of grease on the bonnet pintle is useful too.
Check Grease, after every trail or off-road journey.
John's hint: Do not lubricate the door locks, they are "life" lubricated at the manufacturing stage.

Well to be honest I know nothing about this , actually they are gases not fluids (Heh) I think it is Freon 12 or Arcton 12.  But gases are the subject for another paper.
John's hint: The compressor of the air conditioning has some oil that should be checked up and added if necessary. All I know here is that this oil should be Waxfree.
Happy Rovering !
                                                                                           John Gibran 1999

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